Psilocybin from Psilocybe mushrooms 


Smoking Cessation 
Johnson, M. et al. (2017). An online survey of tobacco smoking cessation associated with naturalistic psychedelic  use. Journal of Psychopharmacology 31 (7), pp. 841-850. 

 

  • Johnson et al. (2014) open-label, proof of concept study found the clinical  outcome of successful smoking cessation in 80% of the sample (12/15  participants), with biologically verified abstinence 6 months after each  participant’s planned quit date. 73% of participants rated at least one of their  sessions as among the top five most spiritually significant experiences of their  lives. 


Alcohol dependence 
Bogenschutz, M., et al. (2015). Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: A proof-of-concept study.  Journal of Psychopharmacology 29(3), pp. 289-299. 

  • Bogenschutz et al. (2015) proof of concept study found patients in the study  exhibited a significant improvement in drinking after their first psilocybin session  and scores on ratings of psilocybin-occasioned mystical experience correlated  strongly with change in drinking behavior. 


Treatment resistant depression
Lyons, T. and Carhart-Harris, R. (2018). Increased nature relatedness and decreased authoritarian political views  after psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 32(7), pp. 811–819. 

 

  • Centre for Psychiatry, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London: Lyon et  al (2018) study on depressive symptoms: One week after psilocybin treatment,  depressive symptoms were significantly reduced to levels more comparable with  controls. The patients’ depressive symptoms remained significantly reduced at the  7–12-months follow-up. 
     

End-of-life anxiety 
Ross, S., et al. (2016). Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology,  30(12), pp. 1165-1180. 

  • New York University: Ross et al. (2016) double-blind, placebo-controlled,  crossover trial, on 29 patients with cancer-related anxiety and depression found  “immediate, substantial, and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression  and led to decreases in cancer-related demoralization and hopelessness,  improved spiritual well being, and increased quality of life.” At the 6.5-month  follow-up “approximately 60–80% of participants continued with clinically  significant reductions in depression or anxiety.” 

Openness 
MacLean, K., et al. (2011). Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the  personality domain of openness. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(11) 1453–1461. 

 

  • Johns Hopkins Medical School: MacLean et al. (2011) combined two double blind  studies with 52 participants to show significant increases in Openness after a high  dose psilocybin session with mystical experiences that were larger in magnitude  than changes in personality typically observed in healthy adults over decades of  life experience. Openness remained significantly higher than baseline more than 1  year after the session. 

Nature-Relatedness 
Lyons, T. and Carhart-Harris, R. (2018). Increased nature relatedness and decreased authoritarian political views  after psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 32(7), pp. 811–819.
Centre for Psychiatry, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London: Lyons et  al. (2018) open-label pilot study with a mixed-model design on treatment  resistant depression found patients reported being significantly more connected  to nature 1 week and 7–12 months after psilocybin treatment compared with  baseline. 

 

Decreased Authoritarian 
Lyons, T. and Carhart-Harris, R. (2018). Increased nature relatedness and decreased authoritarian political views  after psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 32(7), pp. 811–819. 

 

  • Centre for Psychiatry, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London: Lyons  and colleagues (2018) open-label pilot study with a mixed-model design on  treatment resistant depression found patients were significantly less  authoritarian 1 week after psilocybin treatment and a trend-level decrease was  found at 7–12 months compared with baseline. 

Most Meaningful 
Griffiths, R., Richards, W., Johnson, M., McCann, U., & Jesse, R. (2008). Mystical-type experiences occasioned by  psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later. Journal of  psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 22(6), 621–632. doi:10.1177/0269881108094300 

 

  • Johns Hopkins Medical School: Griffiths et al. (2006, 2008) 67% of the volunteers  rated the experience with psilocybin to be either the single most meaningful  experience of his or her life or among the top five most meaningful experiences of  his or her life, which continued at the 14-month follow-up. 79% of the volunteers  rated that the psilocybin experience increased their current sense of personal  well-being or life satisfaction “moderately” (50%) or “very much” (29%) Lifetime  mystical experience and spiritual transcendence scores were significantly higher  in the group that received psilocybin. These results were relatively the same after  a 14-month follow-up. 

Mystical experiences 
Griffiths, R., Richards, W., Johnson, M., McCann, U., & Jesse, R. (2008). Mystical-type experiences occasioned by  psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later. Journal of  psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 22(6), 621–632. doi:10.1177/0269881108094300

 

  • Johns Hopkins Medical School: Griffiths et al. (2006, 2008) 22 of the total group of  36 volunteers had a “complete” mystical experience after psilocybin, staying  relatively the same after a 14-month follow-up.